American and Japanese Colonization

True Freedom for the Filipinos!

Answers to Questions

These are the answers to the created research questions.

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1. How did the Americans and Japanese colonize the Philippines? What were there motives for doing it?

Posted by KASPIL2 Module 3 on December 5, 2010 at 7:32 AM Comments comments (0)

AMERICAN COLONIZATION

Why did they do it?

• The United States colonized the Philippines as a mission of tutelage (big brother knows best), preparing the Philippines for their eventual independence.

• It was because the US needed an island in Asia that ships could stop and load before moving on to other Asian countries. The Philippines is also in a perfect place to control the Asian market.

• The interest of the US in the Philippines was predicated solely in the country’s strategic position. The US needed a strong presence in the pacific and the Philippines was the ideal choice location wise.

• It was though then that if the Philippines was under US rule then no foreign power would dare antagonize her.

How did they do it?

• The Americans bought the Philippines from the Spaniards through the Treaty of Paris at a price of $20,000,000. However, even before that, the American already took hold of Manila.

• General Emilio Aguinaldo was captured at Palanan, Isabela in 1901 resulting to the loss of the Philippines in the Filipino-American War.

• American colonial authorities repeatedly offered opportunities for Filipino cooperation and participation in the colonial government.

• The landowning class and the illustrados decided, upon the entry of the United States in the islands, to cooperate with the American colonialists.

 

 

JAPANESE COLONIZATION

Why did they do it?

•They were looking for territories to accommodate not only their excess population but also their manufactured goods.

• To support their military force with the basic human necessities like food and clothes.

• They can use the Philippines as another base of operation wherein Japanese air force and naval fleet can gain needed maneuverability. Finally, by conquering the Philippines, the Japanese are able to remove a very strategic Allied command post in the south Pacific.

How did they do it?

• As early as December 10, 1941, the Japanese were sighted at the northern area of Luzon and continually moves towards the capital. These group of Japanese were able to drive the American and Filipino soldiers to Corregidor and Bataan. This group was led by Lieutenant Masaharu Homma. The American forces led by General Douglas Mac Arthur were unable to defend against the Japanese troops. Japanese bombers brought havoc to the American’s bases. With the fall of Corregidor and Bataan, it was considered as the fall of the Philippines into the hands of the Japanese.

 

2. What were the political aspects that we gained during the American and Japanese occupation?

Posted by KASPIL2 Module 3 on December 5, 2010 at 7:27 AM Comments comments (0)

POLITICAL ASPECTS

American

• Democracy was the greatest legacy the Americans gave us. The government has three branches:

-executive (president),

-legislative (senate and congress)

-and the judiciary (department of justice).

An elected Filipino legislature was established in 1907.

• The Philippines Commission performed executive and legislative powers and functions

 

 

 

Japanese

• Military government was first introduced right after the fall of Corregidor. The military official warned the townspeople that for every Japanese that are killed, ten Filipinos would then be killed in return.

• A Philippine Republic was formed which was composed of three major units namely the executive, legislative and judicial committees.

• The president of this republic was Dr. Jose P. Laurel who was instructed by a Japanese in the shadow.

• The puppet republic was born.

 

3. What was the motive for starting the World War 2?

Posted by KASPIL2 Module 3 on December 5, 2010 at 7:23 AM Comments comments (0)

• Back in 1939 World War 2 started when Adolf Hitler of Germany started invading Poland which at that was in an alliance with France and England.

• Italy, having an alliance with Germany then invaded Ethiopia.

• In the pacific, it was when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941.

• The three countries Italy, Germany, and Japan believed that they are a race of superiority and they wanted the world to know their power.

 

 

Attack on Pearl Harbor - Japanese planes view.

 

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Japanese navy against the United States' naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941 (Hawaiian time), later resulting in the United States becoming militarily involved in World War II. It was intended as a preventive action to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from influencing the war the Empire of Japan was planning to wage in Southeast Asia against Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States. The attack consisted of two aerial attack waves totaling 353[7] aircraft, launched from six Japanese aircraft carriers.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Can you compare and describe the economic policies implemented during the American and Japanese occupation?

Posted by KASPIL2 Module 3 on December 5, 2010 at 7:10 AM Comments comments (0)

ECONOMIC POLICIES

American

• During the American Occupation, the Filipinos did not control their economy.

• The Americans heavily capitalized the economy of the Philippines.

• The growth of the export economy during the American occupation has some serious effects on the socio-economic situation of the Philippines, granting of free trade preferences to the Philippine exports and at the same time give the Americans competitive advantages which led to the decline of Philippine handicrafts.

• The English language is used for businesses which is a disadvantage for the Filipinos.

• There were free trade relations between the Philippines and the United States resulting to the rise of foreign trade to unheard-of proportions. The country always had a favorable balance of trade.

• Domestic trade also developed but slower since the internal trade was mostly in the hands of aliens.

• Mining became the backbone of the economy.

• The over-all effect of the Philippine-American free trade relations was the placing of the Philippine economy at the mercy of the Americans.

• The Philippines remained economically backward. U.S. trade policies encouraged the export of cash crops and the importation of manufactured goods; little industrial development occurred. Meanwhile, landlessness became a serious problem in rural areas; peasants were often reduced to the status of serfs.

 

 

 

Japanese

• During the Japanese occupation, the economic status of the Philippines fell into shambles. Scarcity of food supplies were experienced by the Filipinos. This is because the Japanese took away all the crops and farm animals that the Filipinos have in their possession. Food alternatives were then considered by the Filipinos just to satisfy their hungry stomachs. Even foods for the pigs during those times were eaten just to compensate for their loss crops and animals.

• There was no production thus people engaged in buy-and-sell which the Japanese supported by manufacturing Mickey Mouse money. The result was inflation.

• Biagasang Bayan (BIBA) and National Distribution Corporation (NADISCO) were created to control the procurement and distribution of rice and other cereals and to ensure equitable distribution of prime commodities.

 

 

2. How will you discuss the social conditions during the American and Japanese occupation, what are the similarities and differences of these conditions.

Posted by KASPIL2 Module 3 on December 5, 2010 at 7:07 AM Comments comments (0)

SOCIAL CONDITIONS

American

• There were Filipino elites who were separated from the masses, this is evident during the Philippine-American War.

• Muslims were separated from Christians and they had their own perspective and ways on how to accept the American Colonization.

• Education is now available to all, no discriminations.

• Divided the Filipinos into classes where the "haves" reaped the nation's profits while the "have-nots" were left with little but their desperate desire for change.

• They formed a new Philippine elite and sought to retain the status quo that had provided them the opportunity to succeed -- whether through business, agriculture, or corruption in government.

Japanese

• During the Japanese occupation women were treated as sex slaves. The Japanese called the Filipinas as comfort women. They would abduct women from households and rape them. Men who were also considered as guerilla during those times were punished and eventually killed.

• The men of the cities and plains had five mortal enemies: the Japanese military, diseases, the guerilla, hunger, and the Japanese-paid Filipino spies. The war hysteria made men unreasonable.

• When the Japanese succeeded in occupying the whole country, the enemy Kempeitai (Military Police) began a career of wanton disregard to human lives. Many people were killed and tortured at Fort Santiago. Some resistance men and women were captured and beheaded by a samurai sword.

• No one, during the darkest days of the occupation, could sleep soundly. Everyone was waiting for the hour he would be arrested and tortured. There was no safety; there were only fears of the unknown.

 

 

3. What cultural behavior during the American and Japanese occupation should we Filipino continue to apply and disregard?

Posted by KASPIL2 Module 3 on December 5, 2010 at 6:50 AM Comments comments (0)

CULTURAL BEHAVIOUR

American

• Religion

-Protestantism was introduced.

-In 1918, more or less than 300,000 Filipinos became protestant.

-The church and the state (government) were separated. Freedom of religion was practiced

-This is a freedom, so whether it is to be still applied or not, it is the decision of the people.

• Entertainment- Music and dance

o Hollywood movies became popular in the country. New kinds of music and dance were introduced like rock n roll, boogie, jazz, tango, cha-cha, polka, and rumba.

o Filipinos learned to watch and play games like table tennis, basketball, volleyball, boxing, and football

o These introduced entertainment can still be applied today for more entertainment choices for the Filipinos to relieve their daily stresses given that we still give importance to our own Filipino entertainments.

• Mode of Dressing was changed.

The women learned to wear dresses, high-heeled shoes and hand bags. While the men wore suits, polo shirts, ties and jeans

-Formal clothings introduced by them can be applied since it can be used in foreign formal events and situations like job interviews and presentations, although, we have our own formal attire, we should still support our own formal attire.

• Food like ice cream, cakes, beef steak, hotdog, hamburgers, sandwiches, cookies, and donuts were introduced. These can still be applied to provide Filipinos a larger choice of daily sustenance, traditional and orginal Filipino food must be supported as well.

• American architecture are still present today. Up, PNU, Manila Hotel and PGH are some examples. The Filipinos can learn and educate others with American architecture, we can develop our own based from their architecture.

• Boulevards, zone districts, streets, centers of leisure were also built.

• “Pagmamano” was replaced by kissing the cheeks of parents and elders as a sign of respect.

-Pagmamano should be prioritized as the best sign of respect to elders since it is our own orginal way, we should avoid sayng hi or hello only.

• The Filipinos learned the value of cleanliness and healthy practices. They were taught proper hygiene to make them healthy and be free from contagious diseases. This is important and we can further develop these values to prevent developing diseases and improve productivity.

• Hospitals, clinics, and health centers were built. Public hospitals

for leper victims were also established.

• Colonial mentality is introduced. This should be abolished or eliminated, Filipinos have lost confidence and believe that our own products cannot compete with foreign ones, Filipino culture are sometimes neglected because of this. We should eliminate this idea and become confident of our own products and therefore produce more original Filipino products that the country can export, improving the economical status of the country.

 

 

Japanese

• During the Japanese occupation, the Japanese did not even bother introducing their culture to the Filipino people. Their main concern for occupying the Philippines is its strategic position which they found beneficial for both their air-force and naval fleet. Also, one of their primary concern is to have another source of food and supply to fuel their soldiers in war.

• Japanization meant road traffic signs in Japanese and the renaming of the streets. Dewey (now Roxas) Boulevard was changed to Heiwa or Peace Boulevard.

• There was also exposure to Japanese films and imposed celebration of Japanese holidays. One such holiday was the Kigen-Setsu or the anniversary of the founding of the Japanese nation according to Japanese mythology.

• Slapstick comedies were presented before pleasure-hungry populace,

• There were even movie theaters which presented pre-war American films. These films were, of course, censored by the Japanese to make sure that they are of the harmless type. In-between those films were Japanese films glorifying the Japanese war machine and way of life.

• A group of college actors formed the Dramatic Philippines Inc., whose purpose was to bring to the stage some popular plays in English and they presented It at the old Metropolitan Theater. Because of the Japanese, the plays were adapted into Tagalog and they plays were hailed as the white hope of the stage.

• The Japanese discouraged the Filipinos from writing in English by suppressing the magazine section of the Manila Tribune which was the only English daily at the time plus the Japanese encouraged the writers to write in Tagalog.

• There was no freedom of expression and, consequently, the writers were limited in their subject matter. A favorite subject is the rural scene. However, good writing was still produced and an anthology entitled “Ang 25 Pinakamabuting Maikling Kathang Pilipino ng 1943” was published in 1944.

• The cultural scene was dismal. The important prerequisite for the development and eventual flowering of art and letters, namely, freedom of expression and of the press was lacking. The writer’s hands were tied and he could move them barely enough to portray or depict harmless subjects.

• However, the fact remains that the Japanese helped the writer in Tagalog re-discover the beauty and the potentialities of his native language.

 

 

 

 

 

1. Can you illustrate the government structure during the American and Japanese occupation? Find similarities and differences w/our current government structure.

Posted by KASPIL2 Module 3 on December 5, 2010 at 6:34 AM Comments comments (0)

American

The democratic government was divided into three branches namely executive which is the president’s office, the legislative which is the senate and the congress and last is judiciary where the justice department resides. Before independence, a civil government was first established by the Americans, Taft as the first Governor General. An elected Filipino legislature was establish in 1907. There was the Philippine commission which performed executive and legislative powers and functions. U.S. administration was first made temporary and aimed to develop a free and democratic government. The law placed executive power in the Governor General of the Philippines, appointed by the President of the United States, but established a bicameral Philippine Legislature to replace the elected Philippine Assembly (lower house) and appointive Philippine Commission (upper house) previously in place. The Filipino House of Representatives would be purely elected, while the new Philippine Senate would have the majority of its members elected by senatorial district with senators representing non-Christian areas appointed by the Governor-General. When Quezon was inaugurated on Nov. 15, 1935, the Commonwealth was formally established in 1935, featured a very strong executive, a unicameral National Assembly, and a Supreme Court composed entirely of Filipinos for the first time since 1901.

Japanese

Current

2. Do the social classes during the American and Japanese period still apply today? If yes, how?

Posted by KASPIL2 Module 3 on December 5, 2010 at 6:33 AM Comments comments (0)

What remained in our society today are the elite classes, elite classes are widely present in our society, these comprises of government top leaders and those who have a large income or own big companies. They mostly control the political and economical aspect of the present Philippines. Having these elite classes, the average citizens and those below the poverty line are at a great disadvantage since they have little or no control at all of the different aspects of the country. The elite class have certain privileges that the lower classes do not have as a result.

3. What can we, the Filipinos, especially engineers, learn from their technological introduction and advances that the American and Japanese during their occupation.

Posted by KASPIL2 Module 3 on December 5, 2010 at 6:30 AM Comments comments (0)

We can learn from the Americans their architectural technology and develop our own designs and methods of architecture and engineering practices. Advances in medicine and health care is also to be noted, from their introduction of these technological advances during their colonization, we can further develop these medical and health advances through our own intelligent and hard working Filipino students or learners and acquire new skills and methods of research and medicinal practices.

 

 

4. How did American and Japanese occupation change the technology of that time and what are its lasting effects on us?

Posted by KASPIL2 Module 3 on December 5, 2010 at 6:21 AM Comments comments (0)

CHANGE IN TECHNOLOGY

AMERICAN

• Factories, such as textile, cigar and cigarette factories multiplied. Sawmills, coconut oil mills, cordage factories, fishing and fish canning, alcohol distilleries, and sugar centrals were established.

• Development of transportation and communication was seen by the increased mileage of roads, an increase in number of bridges and culverts, and the advent of cars, trucks, and railway cars.

• Telephone lines were introduced in Manila back in 1905 and radio-telephone service in 1933. Towns and provincial capitals were linked together by telephones, telegraph lines, and radio. There were also lots of mail offices in the country.

 

JAPANESE

• There was practically no production. Industry, trade, and commerce suffered a setback.

• Horses, cars, trucks, and other means of transportation were confiscated by the Japanese.

• Piracy of cigarettes became famous especially at Malabon, Rizal. The deception was so complete that no one could distinguish, except the manufacturers themselves, between a genuine Chesterfield (American Cigarette) and a fake one.

 


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